Surgery before it was sterile, with the surgeons in street clothing, and a complete lack of aseptic procedures.
Although it seems hard to believe today, as recently as the late 1800s the concept that surgery should be sterile was still facing an uphill battle. Some people found it hard to believe that invisible “germs” (as they were called) were causing the high rates of post-surgical infections. Others (some surgeons included) still believed that infections weren’t caused by germs at all, which inclined them to view sterile surgery as an unnecessary affectation. Surgeons who did want to tr